Educational institutions should offer students and workers soft skills, entrepreneurial and managerial skills that are harder to automate and offer workers the flexibility to move between jobs. This also means providing students and workers with digital and IT skills, computer science and computer programming skills. Changes within Industries and Labour Markets Structural change in developing countries is usually understood as a shift of employment from agriculture to industry, and from less……

Several trends, such as technological change, population aging, and globalization, are simultaneously affecting the demand and supply of different types of skills. This can generate skill shortages, particularly in countries where supply is not sufficiently responsive to changes in skill demand. Where to find the gap? Despite the costs that these skill shortages can entail for employers and the economy, reasonable measures of the phenomenon are hard to come by. Notably,……